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The breakup of Yugoslavia occurred as a result of a series of political upheavals and conflicts during the early 1990s. After a period of political crisis in 1980s, constituent republics of the Socialist Federal Republic of Yugoslavia split apart. Bosnia and Herzegovina declared independence on the 3rd of March 1992 and received international recognition the following month on April 6.

The country is a potential candidate for membership to the European Union, Bosnia has not yet formally applied for EU membership, and it thus remains a potential candidate country. Also a candidate for North Atlantic Treaty Organisation (NATO) membership since April 2010, when it received a Membership Action Plan at a summit in Tallinn. Additionally, the country has been a member of the Council of Europe since April 2002 and a founding member of the Mediterranean Union upon its establishment in July 2008.

Visa-free travel to the Schengen zone began in mid-December 2010 for Bosnians with biometric passports.

Currency: Bosnia and Herzegovina convertible mark.

Population: 3.8 million